Jump to content
Ornithology Exchange (brought to you by the Ornithological Council)

Guam Kingfishers to be introduced to Palmyra Atoll

Recommended Posts

This news and analysis are provided by the Ornithological Council, a consortium supported by ornithological societies. Join or renew your membership in your ornithological society if you value the services these societies provide to you, including OrnithologyExchange and the Ornithological Council.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing to introduce a nonessential experimental population of Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus), also known as Sihek, on Palmyra Atoll to promote the conservation and recovery of the species. Sihek are currently extinct in the wild and the captive population is at high risk of extinction, partly due to a recent moderate decline in reproductive output that is likely to have long-term negative consequences on the survival probability for this species.

Endemic to Guam, Sihek were common in the early 1900s but declined between 1950 and 2000, mostly due to predation by the brown treesnake. It was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act in 1984. The last remaining wild Sihek were taken into captivity between 1984 and 1986. Sihek were considered extinct in the wild by 1988.

The primary cause of the Sihek’s extinction in the wild was predation by the introduced brown treesnake, which likely arrived on Guam prior to 1950 as stowaways on shipping materials. Brown treesnakes are still present on Guam; that presence precludes consideration of Guam as a viable reintroduction site for Sihek for the foreseeable future.

The reintroduction would occur on Palmyra Atoll. The majority of the islands, waters, and the coral reefs surrounding Palmyra Atoll are owned by the United States and managed by the USFWS as Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.  According to the USFWS, “the introduction of sihek to Palmyra Atoll is not intended to be a permanent introduction that would support a self- sustaining population; rather, it is intended to facilitate the gathering of information and analysis to optimize efforts for reestablishment of the species on Guam once brown treesnakes can be sufficiently controlled at a landscape scale.”

Section 10(j) of the ESA allows for the designation of reintroduced populations of listed species as experimental populations, giving the USFWS greater regulatory flexibility and discretion in managing the reintroduced species to encourage recovery in collaboration with partners, especially private landowners. The agency plans to introduce up to nine hatch-year Siheks in the first year, and fewer in subsequent years, to ultimately achieve a target of 10 breeding pairs.

Comments on the proposal are due 30 September.

About the Ornithological Council

The Ornithological Council is a consortium of scientific societies of ornithologists; these societies span the Western Hemisphere and the research conducted by their members spans the globe. Their cumulative expertise comprises the knowledge that is fundamental and essential to science-based bird conservation and management.  The Ornithological Council is financially supported by our member societies and the individual ornithologists who value our work. If the OC’s resources are valuable to you, please consider joining one of our member societies or donating directly at Birdnet.org. Thank you for your support!

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and register later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Reply to this topic...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Restore formatting

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Create New...