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HPAI found in wild bird in South Carolina

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This news and analysis are provided by the Ornithological Council, a consortium supported by ornithological societies. Join or renew your membership in your ornithological society if you value the services these societies provide to you, including OrnithologyExchange and the Ornithological Council.

As announced in a press release from USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, highly pathogenic Eurasian H5 avian influenza (HPAI) has been confirmed in a wild American Wigeon (Mareca americana) in Colleton County, South Carolina. Eurasian H5 HPAI has not been detected in a wild bird in the United States since 2016.

On December 20, 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency confirmed the presence of HPAI H5N1 at a multi-species exhibition farm in the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada - the first detection of HPAI H5 in North America since the summer of 2015.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service –Wildlife Services (WS) recently completed fall waterfowl sampling in the U.S., as called for in the Implementation Plan for Avian Influenza Surveillance in Waterfowl in the United States. HPAI was not detected in the nearly 6,000 samples collected through that effort. 

For information about HPAI, as well as West Nile virus and other zoonotic diseases that is pertinent for ornithologists and bird banders, read the Ornithological Council’s fact sheet.

More information about HPAI and the USDA APHIS’s  plan for avian influenza surveillance in wild birds is available here

UPDATE 1/19/22 - APHIS confirmed 2 more findings of HPAI, one in North Carolina and one in South Carolina. 

UPDATE 2/1/22 - New USGS Wildlife Health Bulletin released.  Attached here. 


APHIS Press Release: USDA Confirms Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in a Wild Bird in South Carolina

Contact:  APHISpress@usda.gov

WASHINGTON, January 14, 2022 – The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed highly pathogenic Eurasian H5 avian influenza (HPAI) in a wild American wigeon in Colleton County, South Carolina.

Eurasian H5 HPAI has not been detected in a wild bird in the United States since 2016.  There was a case of HPAI (H7N3) in one commercial meat turkey flock in South Carolina in 2020 due to a North American lineage virus. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers the risk to the general public from HPAI H5 infections to be low.  No human infections with Eurasian H5 viruses have occurred in the United States. As a reminder, the proper handling and cooking of poultry and eggs to an internal temperature of 165˚F kills bacteria and viruses, including HPAI.

Anyone involved with poultry production from the small backyard to the large commercial producer should review their biosecurity activities to assure the health of their birds. APHIS has materials about biosecurity, including videos, checklists, and a toolkit available at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/  

The United States has the strongest AI surveillance program in the world, and USDA is working with its partners to actively look for the disease in commercial poultry operations, live bird markets, and in migratory wild bird populations. APHIS Wildlife Services collected the sample from the hunter-harvested American wigeon, and it was initially tested at the Clemson Veterinary Diagnostic Center (a member of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network).   The presumptive positive samples were then sent to APHIS’ National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) for confirmatory testing.

Since wild birds can be infected with these viruses without appearing sick, people should minimize direct contact with wild birds by using gloves. If contact occurs, wash your hands with soap and water, and change clothing before having any contact with healthy domestic poultry and birds. Hunters should dress game birds in the field whenever possible and practice good biosecurity to prevent any potential disease spread. Biosecurity information is available at: 

In addition to practicing good biosecurity, all bird owners should prevent contact between their birds and wild birds and report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through their state veterinarian or through USDA’s toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593. Additional information on biosecurity for backyard flocks can be found at http://healthybirds.aphis.. 

Additional background

Avian influenza (AI) is caused by an influenza type A virus which can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese, and guinea fowl) and is carried by free flying waterfowl such as ducks, geese and shorebirds. AI viruses are classified by a combination of two groups of proteins: hemagglutinin or “H” proteins, of which there are 16 (H1–H16), and neuraminidase or “N” proteins, of which there are 9 (N1–N9). Many different combinations of “H” and “N” proteins are possible. Each combination is considered a different subtype and can be further broken down into different strains which circulate within flyways/geographic regions. AI viruses are further classified by their pathogenicity (low or high)—the ability of a particular virus strain to produce disease in domestic chickens.


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WHB 2022-02 HPAI update.pdf

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