The first issue of Revista Brasileira de Biologia was published in April 1941, after the establishment of Sociedade de Biologia do Brasil [brazilian Society of Biology] and it was financed by the philanthropist Guilherme Guinle. Only in 1971 the journal came to be published by Academia Brasileira de Ciências. As from 1998, Revista Brasileira de Biologia has been published by Instituto Internacional de Ecologia.
Its purpose is to publish articles with the results of original research in any branch of Biological Sciences. The Editorial board coordinates the assessment of the articles submitted. It is a quarterly publication.
The journal began using the name Brazilian Journal of Biology sometime before 2000 and received a new ISSN in 2001. The last issue published under the current name was volume 61 number 2, with number 3 being published under the new name and ISSN.